We will study the formation of supermassive black holes under realistic conditions, taking into account gas-dynamical processes, chemistry and cooling, as well as stellar dynamical processes to obtain realistic models, and including the derivation of gravitational wave signatures from the formation process. These investigations will be complemented with accurate measurements of the black hole mass function .
We will probe supermassive black hole growth across cosmic history, making use of the unique capabilities of NuSTAR. We expect to obtain novel results both on recently formed, deeply embedded sources that could not be observed with other telescopes, as well as on accretion processes in nearby AGN to study the fundamental physics of accretion.
We will explore black hole accretion and outflow (jet) formation in the immediate surroundings of the black hole (10s to 1000s Schwarzschild radii; via the EHT, GMVA. LBA, and EVN), in the accretion disk (100 to 1000s Schwarzschild radii; via reverberation mapping like techniques in double peakers), and on galaxy scales (10pc to kpc scales; via VLT/MUSE and ALMA) in samples of nearby AGN. These studies will be complemented through numerical simulations probing instabilities in the inner accretion disk and the onset and feedback of the accretion flow on sub-parsec scales.